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母猪真实死亡成本是多少?我们低估了母猪死亡的成本

硕腾猪业 2022-12-07

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明尼苏达大学教授、临床兽医博士(DVM)、科学研究博士(PhD)约翰•迪恩(John Deen)说:“当一头母猪未充分发挥其潜力时,猪场成本和母猪群下游收益损失往往被大大低估。

标题:迪恩:我们低估了母猪死亡的成本

Deen: We’re underestimating the cost of sow mortality

 

明尼苏达大学教授、临床兽医博士(DVM)、科学研究博士(PhD)约翰•迪恩(John Deen)说:“当一头母猪未充分发挥其潜力时,猪场成本和母猪群下游收益损失往往被大大低估。迪恩告诉《今日猪健康》(Pig Health Today),目前估计每头母猪提前离场的成本在500至1000美元,这可能远低于实际成本。

 

When a sow doesn’t reach her full potential, the cost to the farm and the cost to the income stream of the sow herd is often “grossly underestimated,” said John Deen, DVM, PhD a professor at the University of Minnesota. Current estimates of $500 to $1,000 per sow due to an early exit may be much lower than the actual cost, Deen told Pig Health Today.

 

“实际上应按机会成本计算,”他说。机会成本指,比如,母猪产六胎后,溢价出售到市场。这就类似于我们对一头猪进入保育育肥舍或断奶育肥舍的预期。

 

“It really is a measure of opportunity costs,” he said. Opportunity cost refers to a sow reaching six parities, for example, and then being sold into the marketplace at a premium. The comparison is similar to a pig that meets expectations after entering a grow-finish or a wean-to-finish facility.

 

母猪

 

“这样想来,我认为我们严重低估了母猪群产高质量仔猪的能力成本,”他补充道。

 

“If we look at it that way, I think we’re grossly underestimating the cost to the capacity of the sow herd to produce high-quality piglets,” he added.

 

迪恩强调母猪群完整记录和多因素监控的重要性。“例如,我们要注意观察跛行和其它因素,而不是在母猪死亡或扑杀时才发现,要在刚发生时就发现,”他强调说。

 

Deen emphasized the importance of thorough records and selecting more factors to monitor within the sow herd. “For instance, we need to look at lameness and other factors, not when they’re diagnosed at death or at culling but when they start occurring,” he stressed.

 

生猪

 

平均数不是好的衡量标准

 

Averages aren’t a good measure

 

迪恩在人类寿命研究方面做了大量工作,他说,人类健康领域花了很久才开始摆脱讨论总死亡率和平均死亡年龄,而转向早期死亡的细节。

 

Deen has done considerable work in human longevity studies, and he said it took a long time for the human-health field to start talking about specifics related to early death rather than overall mortality and average age at death.

 

他说:“平均数传达给我们的信息有限。“在人类健康领域,我们使用伤残调整寿命年,这改变了我们视角,不再局限于平均数,而是关注损失的年数,对于母猪而言,即损失的胎次。”迪恩说,母猪群也需要这种思路,包括母猪护理和福利。

 

“Our averages aren’t telling us enough,” he said. “In human health, we talk about something called disability-adjusted life years, and it has changed the attitude from looking at simply moving an average to looking at lost years or, for sows, lost parities.”The same approach is needed in sow herds, Deen said, and that includes sow care and welfare.

 

迪恩说:“我们要对母猪和产生的问题更上心。”这会是一个挑战,尤其优秀的畜牧管理技术有时不易理解和点破。

 

“We need to be sensitive to the sows and to problems as they occur,” Deen said. That can be a challenge when quality herdsmanship is sometimes difficult to understand and identify.

 

迪恩指出:“人员及他们识别病猪的能力存在很大差异。因此,员工培训非常重要,尤其是饲养员,他们是母猪群管理的核心部分。我无法通过讲座或幻灯片来培训我的学生。即使是视频培训也很难。我们必须和学生一起走入猪群,解决问题,培训和经验的获取方有成效。”

 

“There are real differences in personnel and their ability to recognize compromised animals,” Deen pointed out. “As a result, employee training is very important, especially in a caretaker role, and is an essential part of sow-herd management. I cannot train my students through a lecture or a slide set. Even video training is difficult. It’s not until we have students working through problems side by side in the herd that we start gaining that training and experience.

 

他补充道:“我们必须尤其珍视能够发现动物行为和精神状态异常,尤其是在疾病早期的那些员工。每个人都能发现疾病晚期,但经验告诉我们,在疾病晚期进行治疗无异于是在寻求奇迹,彼时干预,为时已晚。”

 

“We have to treasure those people who can identify the behavior and attitudes of animals as they occur, especially during early stages of disease,” he added. “Everyone can identify the late stages of a disease, but we know that time after time treating the late stages of a disease is asking for a miracle, and we simply can’t rely on that level of intervention.”

 

生猪

 

奶牛业可作“他山之石”

 

Insights from the dairy industry

 

迪恩道,更好的母猪群管理可向奶牛业取经。事实上,他建议请奶牛兽医检查母猪群,因为他们了解跛行这样的问题以及营造能够满足动物基本需求环境的重要性。

 

Better sow-herd management may come from the dairy industry, Deen said. In fact, he has recommended that sow herds be examined by dairy veterinarians because they understand the challenges of lameness and the importance of creating environments that address an animal’s basic needs.

 

此外,迪恩从福利评估中吸收了一些建议并应用于母猪存活。

 

Additionally, Deen takes some of the recommendations from welfare evaluations and applies them to sow survivability.

 

对迪恩来说,这表示要观察不适母猪的行为表现,包括:

 

To Deen, that means looking at behaviors where sows are compromised, including:

 

•地板-跛行;

 

•Floors — in terms of lameness;

 

•温度-母猪不进食、不愿走动或不发情;

 

•Temperature — sows not eating, not moving around or not coming into estrus;

 

•等级制-不适应群体饲养环境的母猪。

 

•Hierarchy — sows that don’t thrive as well in group settings.

 

“这些是福利的三大挑战,有效解决每个问题都会带来回报,”他说。“我们在很大程度上根据采食量来判断母猪是否健康,我们需要打开思路,创建更多指标。我们需要在猪场测试这些指标,了解它们对母猪群死亡率、生产力和留存率的影响。”

 

“Those seem to be the big three challenges in welfare, and addressing each of those correctly is yielding results,” he said. “We’ve relied on feed intake a great deal as far as a measure of the health of sows, and we need to go beyond that and start creating more indicators. We need to test those indicators on the farm and understand what effect they have, not only on mortality but on productivity and retention in the sow herd.”

 

管理我们的预期

 

Manage our expectations

 

迪恩说,美国猪肉行业需认识到母猪预期生产力和母猪生存力之间存在平衡。“我认为,与生猪生产指标和预期类似,我们目前正在经历母猪生产指标和预期的一些变化。

 

The US pork industry needs to recognize there is a balance between the productivity expectations of the sow and the ability of that sow to survive, Deen said. “I think we’re going through some of the same changes in sow productivity now as we did in growing-pig productivity as far as measures and expectations. 

 

我们有一定量的生猪空间。我们填满这些空间,期望最终生产出符合收猪商要求的健康动物。我们尚未为母猪制定类似的指标。”

 

We have a certain number of growing-pig spaces. We fill those spaces, and our expectation is to produce a healthy animal at the end that meets the packers’ specifications. We haven’t really entered into the same kind of metric for sows.”

 

迪恩表示,然而这一时刻正在到来。

 

However, that time is coming, Deen noted.

 

“保障母猪寿命,首先我们想到的是保持青年母猪的存活率和生产力,但我认为我们应将眼光转向‘顶级母猪’。她能满足自身需求,在猪群中存活,并保留到被初产母猪合理取代,她进入淘汰母猪市场时仍能获得淘汰母猪的最优价。”

 

“The first answer to sow longevity is keeping young sows alive and productive, but I think we’re going to move to a ‘top sow’ ⸺ a sow that manages her demands, survives in the herd and is retained until a gilt is justified to replace her, at which time she enters the cull-sow market and gets a top price for a culled sow.”

 

他补充,未来的母猪在上市前可产六到七胎,而今天,只有美国猪群的一小部分能做到。

 

The sow of the future is one that produces six or seven parities before going to market, and today, that’s a small percentage of US herds, he added.

 

迪恩说:“美国猪群中,一般母猪被提前扑杀或出现死亡。在未来,在既定的时间扑杀或在计划内进行的扑杀才值得我们庆祝。”

 

“The average sow in US herds is culled early or is a mortality,” Deen said. “In the future, we have to celebrate culling that occurs at the right time and as a preplanned event.”

 

原文链接:https://pighealthtoday.com/deen-were-underestimating-the-cost-of-sow-mortality/


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